Histopathology is based on the processing and morphological analysis of tissue samples, obtained by various surgical techniques. These can be endoscopic and incisional biopsies, as well as operative materials and bone marrow biopsies. It is extremely important that the pathohistological diagnosis be precise, because it represents the final, definitive diagnosis.

The pathohistological analysis includes microscopic and molecular-biological tests.

As part of microscopic diagnostics, histological and cytological tests are performed.

Histological tests

When it comes to histological tests, two techniques are particularly important, especially in the context of oncological staining, namely histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Histochemical tests are based on the different binding of dyes to healthy and pathologically altered tissue/cell.

Immunohistochemistry is a technique that works on the principle of diagnostic antibodies, which have several binding sites: two for the tumor-specific target structure and one to which the dye can bind. This technique is especially used in the detection of hormone receptors in breast cancer.

Cytological tests

Cytological analysis involves determining the cell composition with the aim of detecting abnormal cells, and has a significant role in the early diagnosis of the disease. In this way, swabs and punctures from various organs, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, as well as samples obtained by aspiration biopsy with a thin needle (FNAP) can be analyzed.

Molecular-biological tests

Molecular-biological diagnostics is based on the characteristic features that certain forms of cancer have, which make them particularly sensitive to one or another type of treatment. With the help of molecular-biological tests, these characteristics of cancer are checked, so that the results of these tests are of crucial importance in choosing the appropriate therapy. In addition, molecular tests are important for acquiring the precise diagnosis, as well as in determining the outcome of the disease.